Organizations, Agencies, and Associations


The ASPIRA Association Inc. works with both youth and adults of varying ethnic backgrounds to enhance the overall potential of Latin American youth in community and society.

Recommended Reading

White Teachers / Diverse Classrooms: Creating Inclusive Schools, Building on Students’ Diversity, and Providing True Educational Equity (2011) 
Julie Landsman and Chance W. Lewis

The point of departure for this new edition, as it was for the first, is the unacceptable reality that, for students of color, school is often not a place to learn but a place of low expectations and failure. In urban schools with concentrations of poverty, often fewer than half the ninth graders leave with a high school diploma. This second edition has been considerably expanded with chapters that illuminate the Asian American, Native American, and Latina/o experience, including that of undocumented students, in our schools. These chapters offer insights into the concerns and issues students bring to the classroom. They also convey the importance for teachers, as they accept difference and develop cultural sensitivity, to see their students as individuals, and avoid generalizations. This need to go beneath the surface is reinforced by a chapter on adopted children, children of mixed race, and “hidden minorities”. White and Black teachers, and teachers of different races and ethnicities, here provide the essential theoretical background, and share their experiences and the approaches they have developed, to create the conditions – in both urban and suburban settings – that enable minority students to succeed. This book encourages reflection and self-examination, and calls for recognizing and reinforcing students’ ability to achieve. It also calls for high expectations for both teachers and students. It demonstrates what it means to recognize often-unconscious biases, confront institutional racism where it occurs, surmount stereotyping, adopt culturally relevant teaching, connect with parents and the community, and integrate diversity in all activities. 

Race, Racism, and American Law.jpg

Race, Racism & American Law (2008)
Derrick A. Bell

The Sixth Edition of this innovative text written by Derrick Bell continues to provide students with insight into the issues surrounding race in America and an understanding of how the law interprets those issues as well as the factors that directly and indirectly influence the law. The first casebook published specifically for teaching race related law courses, Race, Racism, and American Law is engaging, offering hard-hitting enlightenment, and is an unparalleled teaching tool. Among the features that have made this text a success with both students and instructors through five editions over 35 years: (a) Clear and readable text along with a participatory approach that encourages discussion of unresolved and perhaps unresolvable racial issues; (b) Interdisciplinary excerpts from historical, sociological, and psychological publications that provide comprehensive coverage of all aspects of the subject; (c) and in this edition pose the question of the law’s limitations in remedying current racial barriers. The presentations promote learning by teaching experience that enables students to realize the complex nature and consequences of racism in the United States. Commentary on the Supreme Court's conception of a color-blind society and its adverse effects on school desegregation, voting, employment, and affirmative action. Alternatives to integration in achieving the goal of equal educational opportunity. The absence or inadequacy of remedies for racial barriers facing Latino, Asian and Native American citizens. Discussion of Professor Lani Guinier's advocacy of proportional representation over majority-minority districts. The uses of nooses as racial intimidation symbols replacing flaming crosses. Racial priorities in Hurricane Katrina rescue and recovery policies. The legal ramifications of the disproportionately high percentage of blacks and Hispanics in American prisons Legal and social barriers to blacks and Latinos seeking to challenge employment discrimination under Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, as amended. The growing acceptance and continued hostility to interracial sex and marriage. The vulnerability of black and Latino buyers to consumer schemes and sub-prime mortgages. The limited value of racial protests during a time of war and national crisis. 

Why Are So Many Minority Students in Special Education?: Understanding Race & Disability in Schools (2014)
~ Beth Harry and Janette Klingner

The second edition of this powerful book examines the disproportionate placement of Black and Hispanic students in special education. The authors present compelling, research-based stories representing the range of experiences faced by culturally and linguistically diverse students who fall in the liminal shadow of perceived disability. They examine the children's experiences, their families' interactions with school personnel, the teachers' and schools' estimation of the children and their families, and the school climate that influences decisions about referrals to special education. Based on the authors' 4 years of ethnographic research in a large, culturally diverse school district, the book concludes with recommendations for improving educational practice, teacher training, and policy renewal.